Transcranial photobiomodulation (TPBM), is an emerging medical area. In TPBM, light in the near infrared spectral region is applied to areas of the head to treat specific brain regions. The light penetrates the skin and skull to stimulate mitochondria in brain cells, thereby increasing cellular respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. The increased availability of energy in the form of ATP leads to cellular growth and repair. Photobiomodulation Animation

Many neurological diseases currently have no cure or bleak treatment options with either a dependence of drugs or invasive and dangerous surgery. The increased understanding the benefits of TPBM at the molecular level has opened avenues for its application to medicine, especially in neurotherapy, as a noninvasive and drug-independent option.